How plants reproduce: Pollination, Seeds, and Spreading

Plants reproduce by producing seeds, which include an embryo, nutrition, and a coat. Seeds help plants reproduce.

Plants pollinate by moving pollen from the anthers to the stigmas. This can happen by wind, insects, birds, or animals.

Fertilization: Pollen travels along the stigma to the ovary for fertilization. A zygote is formed when male gametes (sperm) and female gametes (egg cells) fuse.

Seed Formation: The ovary ovule becomes a seed after fertilization. The ovary usually becomes a fruit, safeguarding the seeds. Mature seeds can germinate and develop new plants.

To colonize new regions, plants have developed numerous seed dispersion techniques. This can be done via wind, water, animals (by attachment to fur or ingestion), or explosives.

Vegetative propagation is an asexual technique of plant reproduction. This comprises runners, rhizomes, tubers, and plantlets, which create new plants without seeds.

Cuttings: Asexual propagation by cuttings from a parent plant allows them to sprout roots and become independent plants. Horticulture uses this to clone desired features.

Grafting: Joining a rootstock and a scion creates a new plant with favorable traits. Fruit trees are sometimes grown using this method to blend one variety's hardiness with another's fruiting.

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